Rishibha Sachdev. While the findings of your study form the foreground of your research, it is equally important to establish the background of your study. A well-written background will provide your study with a context and prompt the readers to read the rest of your paper. However, most authors struggle with writing the background of the study. Another common problem authors encounter is distinguishing between the background and the literature review, which are critical aspects of any research paper.
The two terms are often used interchangeably; however, they have clearly defined roles. So in this article, I will cover the basics of writing the background and explain how it is different from the literature review. The background of the study. The background of the study establishes the context of the research.
This section explains why this particular research topic is important and essential to understanding the main aspects of the study. How to structure the background.
Definition of a Background Literature Search
In this section, the author usually outlines the historical developments in the literature that led to the current topic of research concisely. If the study is interdisciplinary, it should describe how different disciplines are connected and what aspects of each discipline will be studied. Additionally, authors should briefly highlight the main developments of their research topic and identify the main gaps that need to be addressed. In other words, this section should give an overview of your study.
The section should be organized as:. The background section, therefore, should provide general information about the topic of your research and emphasize the main aims of the study. Please ensure that you only discuss the main and relevant aspects of the studies that have led to your aims. Do not elaborate on them as this should be done in the literature review section. The background section should discuss your findings in a chronological manner to accentuate the progress in the field and the missing points that need to be addressed.
The background should be written as a summary of your interpretation of previous research and what your study proposes to accomplish. How to write an engaging background of the study for your research paper. Understand how to create a well-structured background for your research work…. Try this course as a part of the All Access Pass free trial. How to make the background engaging. As the background includes a lot of information, it can become a long drag, causing the readers to lose interest.
To ensure that your background is engaging, you should try to build a story around the central theme of your research. Ensure that the story adheres to the core idea and does not digress into a broad literature review.Background information identifies and describes the history and nature of a well-defined research problem with reference to the existing literature. Background information does not replace the literature review section of a research paper; it is intended to place the research problem in a proper context.
Background information expands upon the key points stated in the beginning of your introduction but is not intended to be the main focus of the paper.Article army law enforcement command
It generally supports the question, what did we know about this topic before I did this study? Sufficient background information helps your reader determine if you have a basic understanding of the research problem being investigated and promotes confidence in the overall quality of your analysis and findings.
This information provides the reader with the essential context needed to understand the research problem and its significance before moving on to the literature review. Depending on the problem being studied, forms of contextualization may include one or more of the following:. Background information can also include summaries of important, relevant research studies.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
This is particularly important if there is an essential or groundbreaking study about the research problem or a key study that refutes or supports your thesis. The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the specific research problem before you conduct the analysis. This is accomplished with a general review of the foundational research literature [with citations] that document findings informing your study's aims and objectives. NOTE : Research studies cited as part of the background information of your introduction should not include very specific, lengthy explanations.
This should be discussed in greater detail in your literature review section. Harvard University; Hopkins, Will G. How to Write a Research Paper. Physics Powerpoint slides. University of Illinois; Woodall, W. Writing the Background and Significance Section. Senior Research Scientist and Professor of Communication. Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. University of New Mexico.Looking for the best Background Books? Feel free to send us your own wallpaper and we will consider adding it to appropriate category.
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Something's gone wrong.Imagine delving into all the extant literature you can find on a topic that fascinates you. That is first step you will take when undertaking scholarly research for an academic paper.
Whether your topic relates to nanotechnology or 13th century literature, you will scour evidence-based sources, such as peer-reviewed professional journals.Speechless lyric aladdin cast iron star
Your goal is to gain an understanding of what is currently known about a subject as you undertake a study in pursuit of new knowledge. Background of literature refers to written records, documents, biographies, scientific studies or virtually anything that will help you gain expertist in your chosen area of inquiry. Your research will entail examination, critique, synthesis and integration of sources and theories. For example, if you were investigating the effect of teacher quality on student achievement, you would begin your literature review by citing definitions of teacher quality and student achievement.
Next, you would analyze studies that found a correlation between well-prepared teachers and above-average student performance as well as studies that produced different results. You might also discuss controversies in the field, such as theories suggesting that factors other than teacher quality are better predictors of student success. The literature search informs future studies by providing a foundation and historical perspective along with a look at developments in the field.Bibliography citation makers book summary apa
Knowing the origin of literature you are finding helps assess the credibiliy and authenticity of the work. Academic knowledge builds upon the work of others. Researchers exploring a topic look for gaps in the corpus of literature that they may be able to fill by undertaking a new study using a somewhat different approach.
Everything you read, from the inception of your research until completion of your final draft, becomes part of your literary review because it influences your thinking. Researchers start with a literature search to gain expertise and credibility in a content area.
Familiarity with previous studies and conclusions avoids duplicating previous scholarship and helps you provide new knowledge to the field. To gain support and funding for your research, you must show that your research is original, important and useful in addressing major questions raised in previous studies. Without a foundation for your study, you would have difficulty interpreting the meaning and significance of data you intend to collect and analyze.
Background research includes studying the methodology used in past studies. Some theses and dissertations require two literature review chapters: one providing a general overview of studies and one outlining the methodology of earlier studies.
By examining limitations of past studies, researchers can avoid similar problems. Mary Dowd is a dean of students whose job includes student conduct, leading the behavioral consultation team, crisis response, retention and the working with the veterans resource center.
She enjoys helping parents and students solve problems through advising, teaching and writing online articles that appear on many sites. Dowd also contributes to scholarly books and journal articles.
Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. Classroom is the educational resource for people of all ages. Based on the Word Net lexical database for the English Language.Fatima Qureshi. A study background and a literature review are essential parts of a research paper. Well, both sections talk about the existing scientific knowledge in a research area and highlight gaps that need to be addressed. So how can you effectively write each section without getting confused?
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The secret to using tenses in scientific writing. Recommended Courses. Infographic: 6 Differences between study background and literature review. May 03, Related reading: How to write the background of your study 8 Dos and 8 don'ts of writing an engaging study background A young researcher's guide to writing a literature review How to write a literature review. Continue with Facebook. Sign in with Google.This causes few problems with reading but makes spelling much harder.
The children cope well for reading but have to remember which alternative to use for spelling. Again spelling is more of a problem than reading. It is in-between these two sounds and only becomes more difficult when spelling. Key rings PDF Precursive Sassoon set 1 and 2 - Print set 1 and 2 Key rings PDF Precursive Sassoon Set 3 and 4 - Print set 3 and 4 Key rings PDF Precursive Sassoon set 5 and 6 - Print set 5 and 6 Key rings PDF Precursive Sassoon set 7 - Print set 7 SPELD SA is generously supported by SPELD SA would like to acknowledge the support of the Douglas Whiting Trust in the development of this website.
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Hair growth is cyclic, with more shed during the fall than at other times of the year. These seven tips can keep your strength training safe and effective.Now we can relate the odds for males and females and the output from the logistic regression. The intercept of -1. Using the odds we calculated above for males, we can confirm this: log(. The coefficient for female is the log of odds ratio between the female group and male group: log(1. So we can get the odds ratio by exponentiating the coefficient for female.
Most statistical packages display both the raw regression coefficients and the exponentiated coefficients for logistic regression models. The table below is created by Stata. In other words, the odds of being in an honors class when the math score is zero is exp(-9.
These odds are very low, but if we look at the distribution of the variable math, we will see that no one in the sample has math score lower than 30. In fact, all the test scores in the data set were standardized around mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10.
So the intercept in this model corresponds to the log odds of being in an honors class when math is at the hypothetical value of zero. How do we interpret the coefficient for math. We will use 54. Then the conditional logit of being in an honors class when the math score is held at 54 isWe can examine the effect of a one-unit increase in math score.
When the math score is held at 55, the conditional logit of being in an honors class isWe can say now that the coefficient for math is the difference in the log odds.
In other words, for a one-unit increase in the math score, the expected change in log odds is. Can we translate this change in log odds to the change in odds. Recall that logarithm converts multiplication and division to addition and subtraction. Its inverse, the exponentiation converts addition and subtraction back to multiplication and division. Applying such a model to our example dataset, each estimated coefficient is the expected change in the log odds of being in an honors class for a unit increase in the corresponding predictor variable holding the other predictor variables constant at certain value.
Each exponentiated coefficient is the ratio of two odds, or the change in odds in the multiplicative scale for a unit increase in the corresponding predictor variable holding other variables at certain value. Here is an example. In all the previous examples, we have said that the regression coefficient of a variable corresponds to the change in log odds and its exponentiated form corresponds to the odds ratio.
This is only true when our model does not have any interaction terms. The interpretation of the regression coefficients become more involved. In this simple example where we examine the interaction of a binary variable and a continuous variable, we can think that we actually have two equations: one for males and one for females.Literature Review with Practical Example
Now we can map the logistic regression output to these two equations. More explicitly, we can say that for male students, a one-unit increase in math score yields a change in log odds of 0. On the other hand, for the female students, a one-unit increase in math score yields a change in log odds of (.
In terms of odds ratios, we can say that for male students, the odds ratio is exp(.
The ratio of these two odds ratios (female over male) turns out to be the exponentiated coefficient for the interaction term of female by math: 1. Click here to report an error on this page or leave a comment Your Name (required) Your Email (must be a valid email for us to receive the report. SERVICES Books for Loan Services and Policies Walk-In Consulting Email Consulting Fee for Service Software Purchasing and Updating Consultants for Hire Other Consulting Centers Department of Statistics Consulting Center Department of Biomathematics Consulting Clinic ABOUT US DONATE FAQ: How do I interpret odds ratios in logistic regression.
Introduction When a binary outcome variable is modeled using logistic regression, it is assumed that the logit transformation of the outcome variable has a linear relationship with the predictor variables.
From probability to odds to log of odds Everything starts with the concept of probability. We can examine the effect of a one-unit increase in math score.
We can say now that the coefficient for math is the difference in the log odds. Logistic regression with multiple predictor variables and no interaction terms In general, we can have multiple predictor variables in a logistic regression model.
Logistic regression with an interaction term of two predictor variables In all the previous examples, we have said that the regression coefficient of a variable corresponds to the change in log odds and its exponentiated form corresponds to the odds ratio. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
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